Solar Flare Theory
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Jee Bang
The Madeira School, McLean, VA


Sarah Skofield
Paint Branch High School, Burtonsville, MD


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3 The hot x-ray loops observed on the Sun are confined by this (2 words). 1 The rate of flow of energy through a reference surface.
5 A discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy. 2 This mathematical description of flare hard x-ray spectra and the electron distributions responsible for them appears as a straight line on a log-log plot (2 words).
6 The hottest, outermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere. 4 Term used for the expansion of chromospheric plasma up into the corona during a flare.
8 This unit is typically used to measure the energy of an x-ray (2 words). 7 Energetic electrons accelerated in a flaring magnetic loop lose their energy and produce bright x-rays at these dense locations.
9 The distance from the axis of a solar loop structure to the center of the semi-circle that the magnetic loop forms is called the __________ radius. 11 In solar flares, many of these charged particles are heated to high temperatures, and some are accelerated to high energies.
10 When this is densest, the x-ray emission from the electrons accelerated in a flaring region will be greatest. 12 The intensity of electromagnetic radiation over a range of wavelengths.
13 The second, most explosive stage of a solar flare. 14 Observations in these x-rays allow us to study the accelerated electrons and the hottest plasma in flares.
16 Energy release process in which adjacent field lines form new connections with each other (2 words). 15 The x-ray spectrum from the corona, where energy losses are minimal and the electron distribution does not change significantly over the observed area, is called ________-__________.
18 Gamma-ray lines are produced when these are accelerated to high energies and interact with the solar atmosphere. 17 Sunspots are located in these areas of strong magnetic fields (2 words).
19 Area above a flare loop where a compact hard x-ray source has been observed by Yohkoh. 21 These x-rays can be imaged with a grazing incidence mirror.
20 The combination of atomic nuclei at high temperatures to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy.
22 This is defined as a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness.
23 Energy lost by the injected electrons goes into heating this (2 words).
24 This consists of the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona (2 words).
25 The German word for braking radiation, resulting from the interaction of energetic electrons with thermal protons.

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